Students will be able to explain geographical processes that influence the characteristics of places and explain how places are perceived and valued differently.

Students will be able to explain interconnections within environments and between people and places and explain how they change places and environments. They propose explanations for spatial distributions and patterns among phenomena and identify associations between distribution patters. Students will compare alternative strategies to a geographical challenge and propose a response, taking into account environmental, economic and social factors.

Students will identify geographically significant questions from observation to frame an inquiry. They will locate relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources to answer inquiry questions. Students will be able to represent data and the location and distribution of geographical phenomena in a range of appropriate graphic forms, including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions. Students will analyse geographical data and other information to propose explanations for spatial patterns, trends and draw reasonable conclusions. They will also present findings, arguments and ideas using relevant geographical terminology and graphic representations in a range of appropriate communication forms. They propose action in response to a geographical challenge, taking account of environmental, economic and social considerations and predict the outcomes of their proposal.


Geographical knowledge and Understanding

At Level 8, students demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of the regions of Australia and those surrounding it: Asia, the Pacific and Antarctica. They explain, using examples, how the interaction of physical processes and human activities create variations within the regions. They use evidence and appropriate geographical language to explain contrasts within smaller regions surrounding Australia. Students describe differences in culture, living conditions and outlook, including attitudes to environmental issues, in these regions. They demonstrate understanding of environmental issues based on inquiry and propose ways of ensuring the sustainability of resources.

Geospatial Skills 

At Level 8, students collect geographical information from electronic and print media, including satellite images and atlas maps and analyse, evaluate and present it using a range of forms. They construct overlay theme maps using map conventions of scale, legend, title, and north point. They identify and gather geographical information from fieldwork and organise, process and communicate it using a range of written, oral, visual and graphic forms.


  • Landforms and landscapes EXPO
  • Fieldwork
  • Changing nations research
  • Examination